احتج آدم وموسى فقال موسى: أنت آدم الذي خلقك الله بيده ونفخ فيك من روحه وأسجد لك ملائكته وأسكنك جنته, أخرجت الناس من الجنة بذنبك وأشقيتهم! قال آدم: يا موسى أنت الذي اصطفاك الله برسالاته وبكلامه وأنزل عليك التوراة أتلومني على أمر كتبه الله على قبل أن يخلقني؟! فحج آدم موسى!» .
صحيح … [حم ق د ت هـ] عن أبي هريرة
It is reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Adam and Musa argued and Musa said:“ Are you the Adam whom Allah created with His Hand, breathed into you from His spirit, prostrated angels before you, settled you in His Paradise, and then by your sin brought people down to Earth and made them miserable? ” Adam said: “O Musa, are you the one whom Allah chose for His message, spoke to you (directly), sent down Taurat to you? Do you really blame me for the work that Allah preordained for me before He created me? “
(The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said): “So Adam defeated Musa in argument.”
This hadith was narrated by Ahmad (2/248), al-Bukhari (4738, 6614), Muslim (2652), Abu Daud (4701), at-Tirmidhi (2134), Ibn Majah (80), Ibn Khuzaimah in at-Tawhid ”(1/120), Ibn Hibban (6180) according to Abu Hurayra, may Allah be pleased with him.
The hadith is authentic. See Sahih al-Jami ‘as-saghir (184), Saheeh Ibn Majah (65), Tahrij Kitabu-s-Sunnah (145).
See also hadith no . 183 .
In the collections of authentic hadiths of al-Bukhari and Muslim, it is reported from Abu Huraira that Allah’s messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told of Adam and Moses holding a disputation in their Lord’s presence and of Adam getting the better of Moses in argument. Moses said, “You are Adam whom God created with His hand, into whom He breathed of His spirit, to whom He made the angels do obeisance, and whom He caused to dwell in His garden (Jannah); then because of your sin you caused mankind to come down to the earth.” Adam replied, “And you are Moses whom God chose to deliver His messages and to address, to whom He gave the tablets on which everything was explained, and whom He brought near as a confidant. How long before I was created did you find that God had written the Torah?” Moses said, “Forty years.” Adam asked, “Did you find in it, ‘And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred’?” 2 On being told that he did, he said, “Do you then blame me for doing a deed which God had decreed that I should do forty years before He created me?” God’s messenger said, “So Adam got the better of Moses in argument.” (This is the Muslim version).
In the version of al-Bukhari it is said: “Adam and Musa argued, and Musa said to him:” Are you Adam, who by your sin brought himself out of Paradise? ” Adam said to him: “Did you Musa, whom Allah chose, gave you the Messenger, spoke to you (directly), and after that you blame me for what was predetermined for me before I was created? The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “So Adam defeated Musa in argument.” He repeated these words twice. “
Also in the collection of al-Bukhari it is said: “Adam and Musa argued, and Musa said to him:” Oh, Adam, are you our father who disappointed us and brought us out of Paradise? ” Adam said to him: “O Musa, Allah chose you, spoke with you (directly), with His Hand He led you the way . Do you blame me for having done the work that Allah predestined for me forty years before He created me? ” This is how Adam defeated Musa in argument, so Adam defeated Musa in argument. ” He (the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) repeated these words three times. “
Interpretation of the hadith
This worldly life passes in hardships and labor, as the Almighty said about this: “We created man in hardships” (al-Balad: 90: 4). Living in this world, a person has to endure various intrigues and intrigues emanating from both enemies and loved ones. Often people are exposed to hurt and suffering from the people closest to them, for example, their own children and relatives.
When Allah created Adam, He settled him in Paradise, allowed him to eat any fruit and drink from all rivers, but forbade him to eat fruits from one single tree. Allah promised him that in the Gardens of Eden he would never go hungry, need anything, feel hot and thirsty. But when Adam disobeyed his Lord, having tasted the fruit of the forbidden tree, Allah expelled him from the Land of Eternity and settled him in the land of misfortune.
In order to survive in the new conditions, people had to work and suffer. Therefore, when he met his forefather Adam, Musa began to criticize him for the fact that he deprived himself and his descendants of heavenly pleasure, and doomed them to drag out a miserable existence in a harsh world. When he turned to Adam, Musa reminded him of the mercy that the Almighty had honored him with. Musa wanted to say by this that it is not proper for a person to whom Allah has given such honor to disobey Him, thereby creating a reason for expelling himself and his offspring from Paradise.
Adam denied the accusations, mentioned the merits of Musa and reminded him of the mercy that the Almighty had honored him with, and then gave him his argument: “Do you really blame me for doing the work that Allah had predetermined for me forty years before He created me? “
The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that Adam’s argument was stronger than Musa’s argument.
Question: Why was Adam right, and why did his argument prove to be more weighty?
Answer: Adam’s sin was not a direct and immediate cause of what happened, and if Allah had not willed it, this would not have happened. The wisdom of Allah was to lead people out of Paradise for a great goal, which is known only to Him alone. The texts of the Quran and the reliable Sunnah unambiguously indicate the presence of divine predestination, that is, that Allah Almighty knew the future of every thing in advance.
Benefits and Lessons from Hadith
- Muslims recognize and confirm the secret knowledge that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) gave us. Allah praised those who believe in the secret, to which the story of Adam and Musa belongs.
Some people tell different stories and pass them off as secret knowledge. We must know that if the authenticity of these stories is not confirmed by evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah, then this is considered a baseless lie built on Allah.
- This hadith indicates the permissibility of disputes between two righteous people. At the same time, the participants in the discussion must come to terms with the truth, which became clear after the discussion, how Musa reconciled himself to the argument given by Adam (peace be upon them both).
- During the discussion, participants should not forget about the merits of their opponents. Moreover, it is desirable to mention them, as did Musa and Adam: they mentioned each other’s merits before expressing criticism.
- Everything in this world happens according to the predestination of Allah. This hadith and numerous texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah confirm this.
- Explanation of some of the advantages and characteristics of Adam: Allah created him with his Hand, bowed all the angels before him, settled him in Paradise. As for Musa, the hadith mentions that Allah gave him prophecy in a special way, the Almighty talked to him directly, gave him the Tablets in which everything that exists was explained, brought him closer and made him one of his closest messengers.
- This hadith tells us about one of the sentences that was recorded in the true Taurat (Torah). The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that it contained the following words: “Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray.” These words are also found in the Qur’an, but this fragment is absent in the text of the modern Taurat.
7. This hadith tells about one hidden truth. Allah Almighty wrote down Taurat forty years before Adam (peace be upon him) was created.
 When the waters parted before the children of Israel.