213 – It is reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Drive the polytheists out of the Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegates as you have seen me dealing with them” .
This hadith was narrated by al-Bukhari 3053 and Abu Daud 3029 from the words of Ibn ‘Abbas, may Allah be pleased with them both.
Sheikh al-Albani called the hadith authentic. See Sahih al-Jami ‘as-saghir 231, al-Silsilah al-sahiha 1133.
231 ( صحيح )
أَخْرِجُوا المُشْرِكِينَ مِنْ جَزيرَةِ العَرَبِ وأجِيزوا الوَفْدَ بِنَحْوِ ما كُنْتُ أجِيزُهُمْ
( خ د ) عن ابن عباس .
“Cast out the polytheists from the Arabian Peninsula” – this hadith needs to be properly understood and explained. It deals with specific places, and not with the geographical understanding of the word “Arabian Peninsula”. And it talks about the ban on living in the Hijaz region only, not anywhere else.
The Prophet’s Companion – Jabir in relation to the words of Allah: “O you who believe! Verily, the Mushrikin are impure. So let them not come near Al-Masjid Al-Haram after this year…. ” (at-Tauba, 9:28), said: “Unless we are talking about slaves or about ahlu-z-dimma.” Ibn Khuzaimah 1329. Sheikh al-Albani called the isnad reliable.
Hence there are some exceptions.
Also, Hafiz Ibn Hajar in relation to the hadith: “Drive the Jews out of the Arabian Peninsula!”, Said:
“Those among idolaters are prohibited to reside in the Hijaz specifically, which is Mecca, Medina, and Yamamah and its surroundings, not what is besides that of whatever is referred to as the ‘Arabian Peninsula.’ It is agreed upon by all that they are not prohibited from Yemen, along with the rest of the Arabian Peninsula. This is the way of the majority. The Hanafis give them unrestricted permission except for the sacred mosque, Malik permits them to enter the sanctuary for trade, and Al-Shafi’i said none of them may enter the sanctuary by default, unless permission is given by the Muslim leader in the specific interests of Muslims.”
Source: Fatḥ al-Bārī 2888
Sheikh Ibn ‘Usaymin said: “The meaning of the hadith is:” Two religions will not gather in jaziratul-‘arab! ” that is there will be no rites of kufr in jaziratul-‘arab. For example, churches will not be built, their bells called, etc. And this does not mean that none of the people will profess kufr, No! The point is that there will be no churches or places of worship, like mosques for Muslims! As for the hadith: “Drive the Jews out of the Arabian Peninsula!”, The meaning of these words is precisely that they do not live there! And this does not apply to workers. ” See Babul-maftukh 2/368, question # 1055.
As such, even after determining to expel the specific Jewish tribes, the Prophet (s) continued to trade with Jews and non-Muslims up until the end of his life, demonstrating that his decree was limited by the context in which it was given.
Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, reported:
تُوُفِّيَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَدِرْعُهُ مَرْهُونَةٌ عِنْدَ يَهُودِيٍّ بِثَلَاثِينَ صَاعًا مِنْ شَعِيرٍ
The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, passed away while his armor was mortgaged to a Jew for thirty portions of barley.
Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 2759, Grade: Muttafaqun Alayhi
This fact is consistent with the general rule as stated in the Quran, that Muslims can and should maintain good relations with peaceful non-Muslims.
لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
Allah does not forbid you from those who did not fight you in religion and did not expel you from your homes, that you be good and generous to them. Verily, Allah loves the generous.
Surat al-Mumtahanah 60:8
In sum, the Prophet’s (s) order to expel Jews, Christians, and idolaters from the Arabian Peninsula was specific to the Hijaz region and for the objective of securing the regional pilgrimage from hostile forces. Non-Muslims are allowed to visit Mecca and Medina for legitimate reasons and with permission from Muslim leaders, but not for proselytizing and preaching against Islam.
Success comes from Allah, and Allah knows best.
Expel Jews and Christians from Arabian Peninsula? from the blog of Abu Amina Elias