This Hadith underlines a Principle of Allah that He never keeps anything in the world on the rise eternally.
Every rising star has its eventual decline. Individuals and nations apart, this law of nature also applies to animal life. In it is embedded Divine wisdom.
First, annihilation and fall is the fate of everything. Second, lest power and growth should go to man’s head, he is warned by being reduced to smallness that there exists a Supreme One Who holds sway over all creatures and can render the powerful weak and helpless.
The bedouin camel-rider resented the Companions by overtaking Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), yet he himself did not express his resentment. Rather the occasion caused him to explain the Divine wisdom behind it. The Hadith also shows the Prophet’s humility.