214 – It is reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“What I fear most for my nation after me is: The injustice of their leaders, the belief in the stars and denial of predestination [1]”. 

This hadith was narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir (58/401) from the words of Abu Muhajin Al-Thaqafi, and Tabrani 8034 from Abu Umamah Al-Bahli may Allah be pleased with them.

Sheikh al-Albani called the hadith authentic. See Sahih al-Jami ‘as-saghir (214), al-Silsilah al-sahiha (1127).

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214 ( صحيح )

أخاف على أمتي من بعدي ثلاثا: حيف الأئمة و إيمانا بالنجوم و تكذيبا بالقدر

( ابن عساكر ) عن أبي محجن .

[1] That is, people will begin to consider predestination a lie.

“I am afraid that after me the members of my community will suffer … injustice of the rulers.”

What was predicted by Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) happened in this Ummah at the very beginning of its existence. Suffice it to cite as an example how the cruel tyrant Hajaj ibn Yusuf, who was the governor of the Caliph in Iraq, dealt with the Muslims. It is said that he killed about one hundred and twenty thousand Muslims.

As for how Muslims should behave in the event of the rulers’ viciousness, the Sharia did not ignore this. Huzaifa said that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “After me rulers will appear who will lie and commit injustice. And the one who will support them in their lies and help them in their injustice, he has nothing to do with me and will not be brought to me near my reservoir. And the one who will not support their lies and help them in injustice, he is related to me, as I am to him, and he will be brought to my reservoir ”. Ahmad (5/384), Ibn Abi ‘Asim (759). Shaykh al-Albani called the isnad of the hadith strong, and Shu’ayb al-Arnaut said that the hadith is authentic according to the terms of al-Bukhari and Muslim.

Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir said: “When they took the oath to Yazid ibn Mu’wiyyah, Ibn ‘Umar was informed about it, to which he said:” If he is good, we will be happy, and if he is bad, we will endure! “ Ibn Abi Zamanin in Usuul-s-Sunnah (990), Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabakat (4/182). Isnad is good.

Abu ad-Darda said: “Beware of cursing the rulers! Indeed, cursing them is death, and hatred towards them is humiliation. “ He was told: “O Abu ad-Darda, what should we do if we see from them something that we do not like ?!” He replied: “Be patient! Indeed, when Allah sees what you say of the rulers, He will deliver you from them by their death. “ Ibn Abi ‘Asim in al-Sunnah (1015), Ibn Zanjawayh in al-Amwal (1/79). The isnad of this report is reliable. [1]

As for this message of Abu ad-Darda, it contains the most important instruction for the Islamic community, and an indication of how to behave with the wicked and unjust rulers of Muslims.

Unjust rulers have always existed, and this has continued to this day. But why is this happening? Who is to blame for this? And if the ruler is unjust and wicked, then can he be reviled and cursed, and what is the benefit for believers? Or is it not good for Muslims?

Many people in our time believe that the discrediting of the rulers of Muslims, which they do at general meetings, on Friday sermons, etc., is good, but rather it is a reproach to Allah Almighty. Why don’t they ponder over the words of Allah Almighty, who said: “So We allow some unjust to rule over others for what they have earned” (al-An’am, 6: 129)?

With regard to this ayah, Qatada said: “Allah gives authority over people in accordance with their deeds. The believer rules the believers, wherever they are and whenever they are, and the kafir rules the kafir, wherever they are and whenever they are. ” See Tafsir at-Tabari 13893, Tafsir Ibn Abi Hatim No. 7899, Tafsir Ibn Kathir 2/446.

Mansur ibn Abil-Aswad said: “I asked A’mash about the verse: “ So We allow some unjust to rule over others for what they have earned ” . ” He replied: “I heard :“ If people get spoiled, then power over them is given to the worst! ”. See Tafsir ad-Durrul-mansur ”(3/358).

Malik ibn Dinar said: “Every time you commit sins, Allah sends you punishment from your rulers.” Abu al-Sheikh. See Tafsir ad-Durrul-mansur (8/395).

Malik ibn Dinar said: “I read in Zabur :“ I punish the hypocrite / munafik / (by another) hypocrite, and then I punish all the hypocrites ”. And this is what is said in the book of Allah: “So We allow some wicked to rule over others for what they gain” (al-An’am, 6: 129) ”. This was reported by Ibn Abu Hatim in his tafsir with a reliable isnad. See also tafsir al-Suyuti “Durr al-Mansur”.

Sheikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah in Minhaju-s-Sunna says: “Fitna at all times corresponds to the people who live at that time.”

In Majmu’ul-Fatawa, he says: “In many places I said that the problem with the rulers, their governors and judges is not only in themselves and their shortcomings, but in the shortcomings of both the rulers and their subjects, for“ what you will be, so will your rulers be ”, and Allah Almighty said:“ Thus We allow one wicked to rule over others ”(al-An’am, 6: 129)”.

Why muslims do not rebuke and blame themselves, because such rulers became the head of the Muslim Ummah because of the depravity of the Muslims themselves ?!

Sheikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The prophets, peace be upon them, were protected from serious mistakes, unlike the scholars and rulers, they are truly not protected from this. And therefore it is allowed, moreover, it is obligatory to clarify the truth that must be followed, even if in this clarification it is necessary to point out the mistakes of scholars and rulers. ” See Majmu’ul-Fataawa (19/123).

An example of clarifying the truth to the ruler is established from the Sahaba but note, that being in presence of the ruler i.e. face to face is mandatory:

Abu Sa’id Al Khudri reproached Marwan ibn al-Hakam as he began – the Eid prayer with sermons, and not with the salah first. So he got hold of his clothes but Marwan pulled them and ascended the pulpit and delivered the Khutba before the prayer. He said to him, “By Allah, you have changed (the Prophet’s tradition).” He replied, “O Abu Sa’id! Gone is that which you know.” Abu Sa’id  said, “By Allah! What I know is better than what I do not know.” Repeating his words three times. (Bukhari 965)

Thus, an explanation of the ruler’s mistake is permissible and even necessary. But as for the abuse and denigration of the rulers of Muslims for committing sins, impiety and injustice, this is completely different, and the Sharia strictly prohibits it. Suffice as an argument one message that Anas ibn Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “The elders of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade us to defame the rulers, and they said:“ Do not abuse your rulers, do not deceive them and do not hate them. Fear Allah and endure, for indeed, relief is near! ”At-Tabarani in al-Kabir (7609), Ibn Abi ‘Asim in as-Sunnah (1015), al-Bayhakyi in al-Shu’ ab “(6/96). Sheikh al-Albani, Dr. Basim al-Jawabra and Dr. Ridaullah al-Mubarakfuri confirmed the authenticity of the isnad.

This hadith clearly and directly indicates that among the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) there was a unanimous opinion / ijma ‘/ that it is forbidden to abuse the rulers of Muslims. And there is no exception in this message, and we are talking not only about your personal ruler, but about any ruler of the Muslims. Sheikh ‘Abdu-s-Salam ibn Barjis said: “In this message there is an indication that the elders of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) were unanimous in the prohibition of cursing the rulers of Muslims. And this prohibition from them, may Allah be pleased with them, is not a consequence of the exaltation of the rulers themselves, as such. Indeed, the meaning of this prohibition lies in the great responsibility entrusted to the rulers by the Shariah. After all, cursing rulers leads to the fact that they will not be obeyed even in good, and this will serve to disgust the hearts of the people from them, which will entail anarchy, which will only turn into evil for people. ” See Mu’amalatul-hukam (75).

What the sheikh spoke about is the truth, which is confirmed in the words of the righteous predecessors / salaf /. ‘Abdullah ibn’ Ukaimah once said: “I will never help anyone in killing after the death of ‘Uthman.” He was asked: “Did you take part in the murder of ‘Usman ?!” He replied, “I believe that talking about his shortcomings was an aid in killing him.” Ibn Abi Sheiba (12/47), Ibn Sa’d in at-Tabakat (6/115). Isnad is authentic.

Ziyad bin Kusaib Al-‘Adawi said:

“I was with Abu Bakrah under the Minbar of Ibn ‘Amir while he was giving a Khutbah wearing a fine garment. Abu Bilal said: ‘Look at our Amir wearing clothes of wickedness!'[2] So Abu Bakrah said: Be quiet! I heard the Messenger of Allahﷺ saying: “Whoever insults Allah’s Sultan on the earth, Allah disgraces him.”

Ahmad (5/42), at-Tirmidhi (2224). Sheikh al-Albani called the hadith good.

This hadith contains a clear prohibition against defaming the ruler of the Muslims.

Also another companion of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) – ‘Umar al-Bukali [3] said: “If you have rulers who uphold salah and zakat, then you are enjoined to perform prayers behind them and it is forbidden to revile them” … al-Bukhari in at-Tarikh al-Kabir (1/203), Abu Nu’aim in Ma’rifatu-s-Sahaba (4/202). Hafiz Ibn Hajar called the isnad authentic.

‘Aun al-Sakhmi said: “Once, when I came to Abu Umama, he said to me:“ Do not revile Hajjaj, for, indeed, he is your emir, although he is not my emir ”[4]. al-Bukhari in at-Tarikh al-Kabir (7/18).

And in this message there is also a clear indication that it is forbidden to revile not only their own rulers, but the rulers of Muslims in general.

Abu Hamza ad-Dab’i said: “When it dawned on me that Hajaj had fallen into the Kaaba by fire (during the battle with Ibn al-Zubair), I went to Ibn ‘Abbas, and when I began to revile Hajaj, Ibn’ Abbas said: “Do not become a helper for the shaitan!” ”Al-Bukhari in“ at-Tarikh al-Kabir ”(8/104).

Mu’az ibn Jabal said: “The ruler of the Muslims becomes one with the permission of Allah Almighty, and the one who reviles the ruler, he reviles the command of Allah Almighty.” Abu ‘Amr ad-Dani in al-Fitan (1/404).

And swearing and defaming the rulers is the quality of the Kharijites. ‘Uqba ibn Wasaj said: “I was told about the Kharijites and how they defame the rulers. And one day, when I met ‘Abdullah ibn’ Amr, I said to him: “You are one of the remaining companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him and Allah gave you knowledge. Here people in Iraq defame their rulers and publicly declare their delusions. What would you say about that?” He replied: “These are the ones on whom the curse of Allah, angels and all people!” ”Ibn Abi ‘Asim (933), al-Bazzar (207). Sheikh al-Albani said that this hadith is authentic according to al-Bukhari’s terms.

Swearing against Muslim rulers is a sign of hypocrisy.

It is reported that Abu ad-Darda said: “Indeed, the first manifestation of human hypocrisy is swearing at the ruler of the Muslims.” Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr in at-Tamhid (21/287).

The Salaf saw the abuse of the Muslim rulers as a sign of innovation. Imam al-Barbahari said: “If you see a person who reviles the ruler of the Muslims, then know that he is an adherent of his passions. And if you see a person who asks Allah for the good for the ruler, then know that he is an adherent of the Sunnah. See Sharhu-s-Sunnah (113).

Abu ‘Uthman al-Zahid said: “Instruct the ruler and pray for him to be righteous and follow the straight path in deeds, words and decisions. Indeed, truly, if the rulers become righteous, then for this reason the people will also be righteous. And beware of cursing the rulers, for it will only increase their evil and grief for Muslims. But ask for forgiveness for them and that they leave evil and harm to Muslims. ” al-Bayhaqyi in al-Jami ‘li shu’ab al-iman (13/99).

Swearing against the rulers of Muslims is what brings evil and grief for the Muslims themselves. Abu Mijlyaz said: “The swearing of the ruler is death.” Ibn Zanjawayh in al-Amwal (1/78).

Abu Ishaq al-Sabi’i said: “Whenever people start to revile their ruler, they will surely lose his good” Abu ‘Amr ad-Dani in al-Fitan (1/405), Ibn’ Abdul-Barr in “ at-Tamhid ”(21/287).

This is exactly what we see – the result of the abuse and cursing of the rulers of the Muslims.

Abu Idris al-Khaulani said: “Beware of abusing the ruler, for this is death! Indeed, those who abuse them are the worst of the worst. ” Ibn Zanjawayh in al-Amwal (1/78).

Imam al-Munawi, in a commentary to the hadith about the prohibition to defame the ruler of the Muslims, said: “The Salafs warned against cursing the rulers, for, verily, this only increases the evil and sorrow for Muslims.” See “Faydul-Qadir” (6 / 499).

Many imams of this community even compiled separate works and individual chapters, in which they cited messages from the salaf about the prohibition to abuse and denigrate the rulers of Muslims.

Once Khalid ibn ‘Abdullah al-Qasri, who became the ruler of Mecca back in 83 AH during the khutba, said: “By Allah, whoever is brought to me from among those who swear at their ruler, I will definitely order him to be crucified!” Ibn al-Jawzi in al-Muntazim fi tarih al-mulyuk (6/299).

All this points to the seriousness and impermissibility of abuse and denigration of the rulers of Muslims.

So let every Muslim who declares that he is from Ahlu-Sunnah and that he follows the path of the righteous predecessors of this community, follow what they were on, leaving behind their passions! And as for the one who, knowing about everything mentioned, continues to denigrate the rulers, even if they are wicked and sinful, he deviated from the straight path and disobeys Allah Almighty and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

Sheikh ‘Abdu-r-Rahman al-Sa’di said: “People are obliged to refrain from discussing the shortcomings of the rulers of Muslims, and not engage in defaming them. On the contrary, they should ask Allah to strengthen the ruler in the truth. Indeed, the abuse of the rulers of Muslims is a great evil and harm, both for society and for individuals. You can meet someone who abuses the rulers, but does not even want to instruct them to the right thing, and this is a betrayal in relation to them. ” See Nur al-Basair wal-albab (66).

Sheikh Ibn ‘Usaymin said:“ Ghiba is forbidden and is one of the greatest sins, and it becomes especially worse when it is directed to Muslim rulers and scholars. Truly, the folly towards rulers and scholars is more serious than towards ordinary people. The reason for this is that the Ghiba on scholars diminishes the dignity of the knowledge that they keep in themselves and that which they teach people. After that, people begin to reject the knowledge that they possess, and this harms religion. As for the Ghiba in relation to the rulers of the Muslims, it weakens their influence and people begin to rebel against them. When people revolt against the rulers of Muslims, anarchy spreads. ” See Sharh Riyadu-s-Salihin (1/340).

However, young people, driven by emotions, do not understand that when scholars forbid reviling and discussing the rulers, they do it taking care of Muslims, because they know the grave consequences of all this, and not in order to please the rulers.

As for those who are not satisfied with the sins and wickedness of the rulers, the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, reported what should be done and how Muslims should act in this case, saying: “The best jihad is the true word spoken in face to an unjust ruler. ” at-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim. The authenticity of the hadith was confirmed by Hafiz ad-Dymyat and Sheikh al-Albani. See Saheeh al-Jami ‘as-saghir (1100).

Also, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) pointed out how to instruct the ruler, saying: “Let the one who wants to instruct the ruler do it secretly, not openly.” Ahmad (3/403), Ibn Abu ‘Asim (1097). Imam al-Hakim, Sheikh Ibn Baz and Sheikh al-Albani confirmed the authenticity of the hadith.

Despite the fact that some contemporaries act contrary to the last hadith, calling it weak, its meaning is confirmed by the previous hadith and the actions of the companions. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, when he was caliph, said: “O people! Indeed, we have a right on you that you exhort us in secret and help us in good! ” Khanad ibn as-Sariy in “az-Zuhd” (2/602).

Shakik said: “Once Osama ibn Zayed was asked:“ Why don’t you go to Uthman to talk to him ?! ” He said: “Do you want me to tell everything that I talk to him about ?! I swear by Allah, I spoke with him in private and do not want to be the first to reveal what happened between us. ” al-Bukhari (3267), Muslim (2989).

When Ibn ‘Abbas was asked about instructions to the ruler, he said: “If you want to do this, then do it so that there is no one between you, and do not gossip about your imam (ruler).” Ibn Abu Sheiba (15/74), Sa’id ibn Mansur (4/1657). Isnad is authentic.

Such were the words of the scholars of our ummah, who correctly understood the religion of Allah. Imams Ibn al-Nukhas, al-Sindi, al-Shaukani, Ibrahim ibn ‘Abdul-Lyatyf and many others said: “The guidance of the ruler should be done secretly, and not in public.” See al-Matbu (24/50) and Saylyul Jarrar (4/556), ad-Dararu-s-saniya (9/119).

The sixth pillar of faith:

Belief in predestination

The predestination “al-Qadar” is the knowledge of Allah Almighty about every thing and about everything that He wished for it to exist from the creations, worlds, occurrences, and other things, the definition and recording of which are in the Protectedt Tablet “al-Lawh al- Mahfuz “. Predestination is the secret of Allah and is hidden from His creations, neither the close angel nor the sent Prophet knows it.

Belief in predestination This is a firm belief that everything that comes of good and evil happens by the decision of Allah and by His predestination. As Allah Almighty said about this:  “Indeed, We have created every thing according to predestination”  (al-Qamar, 54:49).

Belief in predestination includes four things First: the belief that Allah Almighty knows about everything, both in general and in the smallest details, whether it is related to His actions, such as creating creations, managing, giving life or killing and the like; or is connected with the actions of His creations, like the words and deeds of man and his condition, as well as the condition of animals, plants and everything else. Allah knows about all this, as He Himself said about it:  “Allah is the One Who created the seven heavens and the same amount of lands. The command descends between them so that you know that Allah can do everything and that Allah encompasses every thing with knowledge ”  (at-Talaq, 65:12).

Second: the belief that Allah Almighty wrote down the predestination of every thing in the Preserved Tablet, wrote down the creation of all creatures, their condition and food. He wrote down the number, form, time and place, and it will not change and will not be replaced, will not increase or decrease, except by the command of Allah. 1. Allah Almighty said:  “Do you not know that Allah knows what is in heaven and on earth? Truly, it is in the Scripture. Indeed, it is easy for Allah ”  (al-Hajj, 22:70). 2. It is reported from ‘Abdullah ibn’ Amr ibn al-‘As that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Allah wrote down the predestination of all creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, and His Throne (is) above the water. ” Muslim (2653).

Third: the belief that everything that exists exists only by the will of Allah and everything that happens occurs at His will. What He desired will happen, and what He does not want will not happen, whether from His actions or the actions of His creatures. 1. Allah Almighty said:  “Your Lord creates what He wills and chooses”  (al-Qasas, 28:68). 2. Allah Almighty said:  “Allah does what He wills”  (Ibrahim, 14:27). 3. Allah Almighty said:  “If your Lord had willed, they would not have done so”  (al-An’am, 6: 112). 4. Allah Almighty said:  “For those of you who wish to follow the straight path. But you will not be able to if Allah, the Lord of the Worlds does not want it. “ (at-Takwir, 81: 28-29).

Fourth: the belief that Allah the Most High is the Creator of everything. He created all creatures with their essence, qualities and actions, and there is no other creator besides Him, and there is no Lord besides Him. 1. Allah Almighty said:  “Allah is the Creator of all things. He is the Guardian and Keeper of all things ” (al-Zumar, 39:62). 2. Allah Almighty said:  “Indeed, We have created every thing according to predestination”  (al-Qamar, 54:49). 3. Allah Almighty said:  “Allah created you and what you do”  (al-Saffat, 37:96).

Arguments by predestination
Allah’s predestination in relation to a person is divided into two types:

First: what Allah predestined from deeds or situations, which does not depend on the person’s desire, as in relation to himself – for example, he is tall or short, handsome or ugly; or regarding his life and death; or about what happens to him against his wishes – such as various misfortunes, illnesses, loss of property, loss of loved ones and similar misfortunes, which are sometimes punishment for the slave, and sometimes a test, and sometimes an increase in his degree. For everything that happens to him without his choice, the person will not be asked, and will not bear the calculation. He must believe that all this happened according to the predestination of Allah and must show patience, contentment and humility. And nothing happens in existence that does not have the wisdom of the All Knower!

1. Allah Almighty said:  “Any misfortune that occurs on earth and that happens to you is recorded in the Scriptures even before We created these creations. Indeed, this is easy for Allah ”  (al-Hadid, 57:22).

2. Ibn ‘Abbas said that once he was sitting on horseback behind the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘O boy! I will teach you a statement: Be mindful of Allah and He will protect you. Be mindful of Allah and you will find Him before you. When you ask, ask Allah, and when you seek aid, seek Allah’s aid. Know that if the entire creation were to gather together to do something to benefit you- you would never get any benefit except that Allah had written for you. And if they were to gather to do something to harm you- you would never be harmed except that Allah had written for you. The pens are lifted and the pages are dried.'” Ahmad (1/293), at-Tirmidhi (2516). See Sahih at-Tirmidhi (2043). 3. It is narrated from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Almighty and Great Allah said:“ The Son of Adam hurts Me by reviling time, whereas I am time, in My hand is power, and by My will, the day is followed by the night! ”” al-Bukhari (4826), Muslim (2246).

Second: what Allah has predetermined from the deeds that a person can do and which he performs in view of the fact that Allah has given him reason, opportunity and choice, such as, for example, faith and unbelief, worship and disobedience, manifestation of piety and evil. For this and the like, a person will be asked and in accordance with this there will be a reward or punishment, because Allah sent messengers and sent down the Scriptures, clarified the truth and lies, encouraged faith and worship and warned against unbelief and sins. He endowed a person with reason, gave him the opportunity to choose, and a person follows what he wants of his choice. And whichever of the two paths he chooses, he remains under the will of Allah, since nothing happens in the kingdom of Allah without His knowledge and His desire. 1. Allah Almighty said: “Say:“ “The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills – let him believe; and whoever wills – let him disbelieve.” Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them.”  (al-Kahf, 18:29). 2. Allah Almighty said:  “He who acts righteously acts for his own good. And whoever does evil is doing harm to himself. Your Lord does not act unjustly with His servants ” (Fussylat, 41:46). 3. Allah Almighty said:  “Whosoever disbelieves will suffer from his disbelief, and whosoever does righteous good deeds (by practising Islamic Monotheism), then such will prepare a good place (in Paradise) for themselves (and will be saved by Allah from His Torment).”  (ar-Rum, 30:44).

4. Allah Almighty said: “Verily, this (the Quran) is no less than a Reminder to (all) the ‘Alamin (mankind and jinns). To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight, And you will not, unless (it be) that Allah wills, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists).. ”  (at-Taqwir, 81: 27-29)

When Arguments Are Permitted by Predestination

1. A person is permitted to invoke predestination when adversity befalls him, as mentioned above. And when a person falls ill or dies, or if disasters befall him that fell on him without his choice, then he can refer to the predestination of Allah and say: “This is what Allah predetermined, and He does what He wants.” After that, he must show patience and, if possible, show contentment in order to receive a reward, as Allah Almighty said about this: “And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.) Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: “Truly! To Allah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.” They are those on whom are the Salawat (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones.” (al-Bak’ara, 2: 155-157).

2. It is not permissible for a person to refer to predestination when committing sins. As for abandoning obligatory types of worship and committing forbidden acts (saying: “This was ordained for me by Allah”), then this is impermissible since Allah obliged us to worship and obliged us to stay away from sins. Allah obliged a person with deeds and forbade trusting in predestination. And if predestination was an excuse for someone, then Allah would not punish those who consider the Prophets to be liars, like the people of Nuh (peace be upon him), the peoples of Aad and Thamud and other peoples like them, and also would not order to impose execution or punishment for criminals … And the one who sees in predestination justification for sinners, then let him not reproach anyone nor punish anyone who harms him. This also makes no difference between those who do good and those who do evil. And what Allah has predetermined, for His servant out of good or evil, He predetermined, connecting it with the reasons. So, there are reasons for the good, and this is faith and obedience to Allah. Likewise, there are reasons for evil, and this is unbelief and sins. And a person acts in accordance with his desires, which Allah has predetermined, and the choice that Allah has given him. And a person does not achieve what Allah has predetermined for him, except through the reasons that he does according to his choice, which Allah has provided for him. So, there are reasons for entering heaven, just as there are reasons for entering hell. Allah Almighty said: “Those who took partners (in worship) with Allah will say: “If Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would not have forbidden anything (against His Will).” Likewise belied those who were before them, (they argued falsely with Allah’s Messengers), till they tasted of Our Wrath. Say: “Have you any knowledge (proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie.”  (al-An’am, 6: 148). Allah Almighty said:  “Obey Allah and the Messenger – perhaps you will be pardoned” (Ali ‘Imran, 3: 132). From ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is not one among you, except as already known his place, which he will take in heaven or hell.” He was told: “O Messenger of Allah, why should we do deeds? Shouldn’t we rely on this? ”- to which he replied:“ No. Do deeds, for, verily, everyone will be facilitated for what he was created for “, – after which he recited the verses:  ” As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And gives the lie to Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path for evil.” (al-Layl, 92: 5-10).

The commission of good or evil by a slave does not interfere with attributing this action to Allah, because Allah is the Creator of everything, and from this is the creation of man and his deeds. However, Allah’s desire for this or that to exist in existence does not indicate His contentment with it. So, unbelief, sins, wickedness exist in existence due to Allah and according to His will, However, He does not love this and is not pleased with this and does not command the commission of this, He hates it and forbids it. And the fact that Allah does not love something does not take it outside of the fold of His Will. And for each thing that Allah has created, there is its own purpose, its own wisdom in creating it.

The best of people and the most fulfilling are those who love what Allah and His messenger love, and hate what Allah and His messenger hate, may Allah bless him and give him peace, and they have no hate or love except for this reason. And they command others what Allah and His messenger have commanded, and do not command anything else. And every slave constantly needs to carry out the commands of Allah and move away from His prohibitions.

Contentment with predestination has three types
1. Contentment in fulfilling mandatory prescriptions.
2. Contentment arising from troubles and adversities. This contentment is either desirable or mandatory.
3. Discontentment towards unbelief, wickedness and sins. A person cannot be satisfied with this, moreover, he is ordered to show hatred for it, because, truly, Allah does not love this and is not pleased with him. Even if He Himself is the creator of all this, Allah does not love it and prompts him to do what He loves.

Allah Almighty said:  “And your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses, no choice have they (in any matter). Glorified be Allah, and exalted above all that they associate as partners (with Him).”  (al-Qasas, 28:68). Allah Almighty said: “If you disbelieve, then verily, Allah is not in need of you, He likes not disbelief for His slaves. And if you are grateful (by being believers), He is pleased therewith for you. No bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return, so He will inform you what you used to do. Verily, He is the All-Knower of that which is in (men’s) breasts.”  (al-Zumar, 39: 7). Allah Almighty said:  “Allah created you and what you do”  (al-Saffat, 37:96).

All the deeds of slaves were created by Allah.

Allah, He is holy and great, created slaves and created their deeds and He knew about them and wrote them down before their accomplishment, and if a slave does good or bad, then what Allah knew and what He wrote down is revealed to us and created. Allah knew about the deeds of a slave with full knowledge, because Allah knows everything about everything, and nothing is hidden from Him, even weighing a speck of dust, either on earth or in heaven. Allah Almighty said:  “Allah created you and what you do”  (al-Saffat, 37:96).

Allah Almighty said:  “He has the keys to the Ghaib (all that is hidden), and only He knows about them. He knows what is on land and at sea. Even a leaf falls only with His knowledge. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth, nor is there anything fresh or dry that is not in the clear Scripture ”  (al-An’am, 6:59). Allah Almighty said:  “Whatever act you do, whatever you read from the Koran and whatever you do, We are watching you from the very beginning. Nothing on earth nor in heaven will hide from your Lord, be it even weighing the smallest particle, or less, or more. All this is in the clear Scripture. ”  (Yunus 10: 61).

It is reported that ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said:

– The truthful and trustworthy Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told us: “Indeed, each of you (first) is formed in the womb of your mother for forty days in the form of a drop, then he remains (there) in the form of a blood clot and the same amount – in the form of a piece of flesh, and then Allah directs the angel, who is instructed to write down four things. He is told: “Write down his deeds, his rizq, his term, and also whether he will be happy or unhappy,” after which a spirit is blown into him. And, verily, any of you can do (good) deeds until he is at a distance of (only one) cubit from paradise, and then what was written for him (at the time in womb) will come true, and he will do the deeds of the inhabitants of the fire. And (in the same way, any of you) can do (bad), until he is at a distance of (only one) cubit from the fire, and then what was written for him (at the time in womb) will come true, and he will begin to do the deeds of the inhabitants of paradise ”. al-Bukhari (3208), Muslim (2643).

Justice (al-‘Adl) and generosity (al-Ihsan) The
deeds of Allah are between justice and generosity, and it is impossible for Allah to show injustice to anyone. Allah acts with His servants either in justice or in generosity. Thus, Allah treats the sinner with justice, as He said about it:  “The reward for evil is equal evil”  (ash-Shura, 42:40).
Whereas with the pious Allah acts out of magnanimity, as He said about it:  “Whoever appears with a good deed, he will receive tenfold reward”  (al-An’am, 6: 160).

Allah’s Commands in relation to Existence and Allah’s Commands in Sharia

First. The commands of Allah in existence are of three types:

1. The command of creation and birth, which is directed from Allah to all creatures, as Allah Almighty said about this:  “Allah is the Creator of all things. He is the Guardian and Keeper of all things ”  (al-Zumar, 39:62).

2. The command of continuation of existence, which is addressed to all creatures, so that they continue to exist, as Allah Almighty said about it:  “Indeed, Allah holds the heavens and the earth so that they do not move. and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft Forgiving. ”  (Fatyr, 35:41).

He also said: “Among His signs is that heaven and earth stand by His will. Then He will call you only once, and you will come out of your graves.”  (ar-Rum, 30:25).

3. Command, also addressed to all creatures, consisting in bringing benefit or harm, rest or movement, life or death, etc. Allah Almighty said:  “Say:“ I have no power to benefit myself or harm myself if Allah does not want it. If I knew the secret, then I would increase the good for myself, and evil would not touch me. However, I am only a warning exhortant and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe ””  (al-A’raf, 7: 188).

Allah Almighty also said: “He it is Who enables you to travel through land and sea, till when you are in the ships and they sail with them with a favourable wind, and they are glad therein, then comes a stormy wind and the waves come to them from all sides, and they think that they are encircled therein, they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him Alone, saying: “If You (Allah) deliver us from this, we shall truly be of the grateful.”  (Yunus 10:22). Allah Almighty also said:  “He it is Who gives life and causes death. And when He decides upon a thing He says to it only: “Be!” and it is.”  (Gafir, 40:68).

Second. As for the commands in Sharia, which is referred to as religion, they are addressed only to people and jinn. It includes faith, rituals of worship, relationships, morals and the implementation of this occurs as one is convinced of obeying the commands of Allah in the Sharia. And the happiest are the most knowledgeable in this, and these are the Prophets, then those who followed their path. And to the extent of our observance of Sharia orders, Allah reveals for us the grace (barakat) of heaven and earth in this world and introduces us to paradise in the next world.

Commands to being, which happen without fail, and a person cannot disobey Allah in this. They, in turn, are divided into two types:

1. An immediate, direct command of Allah, after which what Allah commanded, as the words of the Most High, certainly happens: “When He desires something, then He should say:“ Be! ” – how it comes true ” (Ya Sin, 36:82).

2. Commands of Allah in being, the laws by which the universe exists in a causal relationship, where causes lead to results. This is indicated by the words of Allah:  “That is so because Allah will never change a grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in their ownselves. And verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower. ”  (al-Anfal, 8:53).

Also Allah Almighty said:  “And when We decide to destroy a town (population), We (first) send a definite order (to obey Allah and be righteous) to those among them [or We (first) increase in number those of its population] who are given the good things of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment) is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.” (al-Isra’, 17:16).

And these laws in Sharia can be used by Iblis and his henchmen, so that they serve as a reason for the corruption of some people. Allah has prescribed for us in the Sharia that we turn with entreaties to Him, to ask for forgiveness, in order to avoid the machinations of the Shaitan. Allah is able to deprive any creation of its properties, or at any time change the law of causality, as He did with the properties of the fire into which Ibrahim was thrown, may Allah bless him and give him peace, as Allah said in the Quran:  “We said: “Oh fire! Become cool and safe for Ibrahim ””  (al-Anbiya, 21:69). Allah Almighty said: “Everything good that befalls you comes from Allah. And everything bad that befalls you comes from yourself. We sent you as a messenger for humans. It is enough that Allah is a Witness ”  (an-Nisa’, 4:79).

Types of good and evil.

Benefits are of two types:

1. Benefits, the cause of which was faith and righteous deeds, and this is obedience to Allah and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him.

2. Benefits, the cause of which is the provision of divine mercy to a person from what Allah gives him from property, health, help, honor and the like.

Evil is also of two types:

1. Evil caused by polytheism (shirk) and other sins that a person commits.

2. Evil caused by trial or divine punishment. From this area, diseases of the body, loss of property, defeat, etc. Thus, the good that comes in the form of submission to Allah is not associated with anyone other than Allah, because He is the One who legitimized it for His slave, and taught him, and commanded to perform it and helped to fulfill it.

Evil, in meaning is disobedience of Allah and His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), if a slave commits it according to his will and choice, preferring disobedience to obedience, then this disobedience refers to the slave who committed it and does not apply to Allah. Since Allah did not legalize this for him in the Shariah, and did not command it to be done, moreover, he forbade and threatened those who commit it, as Allah Almighty said about it: “Everything good that befalls you comes from Allah. And everything bad that befalls you comes from yourself. We sent you as a messenger for humans. It is enough that Allah is a Witness ”  (an-Nisa’, 4:79).

As for good, in meaning, is like property, children, health, help, victory, as well as evil in its meaning of punishment and trial, like deprivation of property, loss of loved ones, defeat and the like, all this is from Allah. And this is because Allah tests his slaves, both for punishment and for raising his degree and honor, as Allah Almighty said about this: “If good comes to them, they say:“ This is from Allah ”. If evil befalls them, they say: “This is from you.” Say: “All this is from Allah.” What happened to these people that they barely understand what they are told? ”  (an-Nisa, 4:78).

What are the fruits of the sent down punishments for sins?
If a believer commits something of sins, then the punishment sent to him leads to the following:

– either he will repent and Allah will forgive him – or he will ask for forgiveness, and Allah will answer his prayer
– or he will do good deeds, in order to atone for their sins
– either his brothers in faith will ask forgiveness for him, and Allah will forgive him
– or Allah will test him with something in this world that will serve for the forgiveness of his sins
– or Allah will test him in barzakh (the place where there are souls of people between death and the Day of Judgment) and this will serve him for the forgiveness of his sins.
– or he will test him on the eve of the Day of Judgment and this will serve as forgiveness for him
– either he will receive the intercession of his Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) or the All-Forgiving will forgive him, and Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Benefits and sins

Benefits lead to goodness and good morals, and sins lead to harm and bad morals. The sun and the moon, plants and animals, land and water obey their Lord and bring many benefits that no one but Allah can count. The prophets obeyed Allah and brought many benefits that no one but Allah can count. And Iblis, when he disobeyed Allah, resisted and became proud and became the cause of evil and wickedness on earth, which no one but Allah could count. Likewise, a person, when he obeys Allah, comes from him a lot of good and benefit for himself and for others, which no one but Allah can count. When he disobeys Allah, evil comes from him and harm for himself and for others, which no one can count except Allah alone.

The fruits of good deeds and sins

Sins harm the heart, just as poison harms the body. And Allah created people in their innate nature beautiful and good, and if he pollutes himself with sin and disobedience, his goodness and beauty leave, but if he repent, they return to him, and they reach their fullness in paradise.

Straight path and delusion

Allah Almighty said:  “And whoever opposes the Messenger after the straight path has become clear to him, and does not follow the path of the believers, We will direct him to where he turned away to and burn him in Hell. How bad is this place of arrival! ”  (an-Nisa, 4: 115).

The fruits of faith in predestination

Faith in predestination is the basis of calmness, pacification and happiness for every Muslim, because he knows that everything happens according to the predestination of Allah and this removes him from narcissism and vanity when he achieves what he wanted in life. Also, he does not feel sad if he missed something, or when troubles befall him, because he knows that all this is by the predestination of Allah and that what happened was bound to happen. 

Allah Almighty said:  “Any misfortune that occurs on earth and with you yourself, is recorded in the Scriptures even before We created it. Indeed, this is easy for Allah. We told about this so that you would not be sad about what you missed, and not rejoice at what He gave you. Allah does not like any arrogant boasting “ (al-Hadid, 57: 22-23).

From Suheib, may Allah be pleased with him, it is narrated that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “How amazing is the position of the believer! Indeed, everything in his position is good for him, and no one is given this, except the believer. If something pleases him, he thanks Allah, and it becomes a blessing for him. If grief befalls him, he shows patience, and this also becomes a blessing for him. ” Muslim (2999).

According to Sa’d ibn Abu Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “I am amazed at the position of the believer. If good befalls him, then he gives praise to Allah and thanks Him, but if something bad befalls him, he gives praise to Allah and suffers. Thus, the believer receives a reward in any position that he even receives a reward in the piece of food that he brought to the mouth of his wife “(Ahmad (1492), ‘Abdu-r-Razzak (20310). The hadith is authentic. See” Sahih al-Jami ‘as-sagyir “(3986)). Author: Muhammad ibn Ibrahim at-Tuwayjiri.


[1] All the transmitters of this message are trustworthy, despite the fact that in relation to Abul-Yaman al-Hawrani, one of the transmitters of this tradition, Imam Ibn al-Qattan said: “His position is unknown.” See at-Tahzib (5/75).

This transmitter was mentioned among reliable Imam Ibn Hibban. See al-Sikat (5/188).

And in the book “Mashahir ‘ulama al-amsar” (114) it is said about him: “He was worthy.” Therefore, Hafiz Ibn Hajar said about him: “He is an acceptable transmitter.” See at-Takrib (1/338).

[2] I.e.  Abu Bilal believed that the clothes that the ruler wore was of silk.

[3] The fact that ‘Umar al-Bukali was one of the companions was said by Hafiz Ibn as-Sakan. See al-Isaba (7/152).

[4] I.e. Abu Umama was at that time in Sham, and Hajaj was the ruler in Iraq.

See Also Saheeh al-Jami ‘as-Saghir Hadith No. 168

 

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